The symptoms of summer patch appear in circular patches or rings, ranging from 6 inches to 3 feet in diameter. Turf within these patches is initially off-colored, prone to wilt, growing poorly, or sunken in the turf stand. Over a period of one to two weeks, the turf continues to decline, turning yellow or straw brown and eventually collapsing to the soil surface. The outer edges of the patch are usually orange or bronze when the disease is actively developing. Affected plants are easily pulled up from the turf, and visual examination reveals that the roots, crowns, and rhizomes are black and rotten. The patches recur in the same spot annually, and expand at a rate of 2 to 4 inches per year. The summer patch fungus begins to attack the roots, stolons, and rhizomes in the spring when soil temperatures reach 65°F. Summer patch symptoms are rarely seen during the early stages of disease development, instead, the symptoms appear in mid-summer after considerable damage has been done to the root system. Heat, drought stress, and nutrient deficiencies are the main factors that encourage the expression of summer patch symptoms. Other contributing factors include potassium deficiencies, poor soil drainage, over-irrigation, excessive thatch accumulation, and soil compaction.